Tourism in the Maldives – the environmental impacts

The environmental changes caused by tourists are a publicly discussed topic nowadays. Nevertheless, we still do travel in masses and therefore have a great impact on the environment. The Maldives, a growing destination, has had many issues in past years with negative environmental changes and not long ago started to implement regulations in order to diminish the growing problems, such as coral reef destruction or rise of the sea level. In comparison, Switzerland is also facing problems, but they are of a different kind. The alpine destination focuses on the nature that needs to be preserved and tries to find a solution for the melting glaciers. We wrote this paper to help the readers understand to what extent their journeys and choices of destinations have an impact upon the environment and how destinations manage the issues.

maldives

703e_MaldivesCaseStudy_2014

Keywords: Maldives, Switzerland, environmental change, impacts of tourism

Authors: Bonk Sophie, Fäh Sira, Fan Xuxiangru, Gilliand Mélissa & Sottaz Justine


 

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The door to door service

Door to door serviceDoor to door serviceDoor to door service

The Swiss railways have come up with a new innovation since the 14th of October 2013: they transport your luggage from your home to the final destination of your journey.

The main idea is to make peoples travelling easier (not having their luggage to bring around) and to ensure more place in the trains in which, it is difficult to move because of all the luggage.

With this service, the Swiss federal trains tries to reach as many kind of travellers as possible. The target market is various, from people travelling in Switzerland, to those travelling in a foreign country, to those going to the airport and more..Image

Laureline Magnin, Julia Maret, Stefano Maioglio

SOURCES

http://www.stnet.ch/fr.cfm/home/actualites/offer-Home-Aktuelles-349065.html

http://fr.webtrains.ch/actualites.php?article=7000026817

http://www.tdg.ch/suisse/Les-CFF-lancent-un-service-de-bagages-a-domicile/story/17316538

http://www.sbb.ch/en/content/news/fr/2013/10/1410-1.html

http://www.cff.ch/gare-services/services/bagages/bagages-en-suisse.html

http://www.cff.ch/gare-services/services/bagages/fly-rail-baggage.html

GastroSuisse

GastroSuisse is one of the leading umbrella organizations that guide the hotellery and restaurant sector of Switzerland. 80-90% from the members and educational programs. They are also receiving support from the government. As well they also work with the Swiss society for hotel credit in order to help their members.

GastroSuisse now has to deal with the new Swiss law about immigration (40% of hotellery employees are foreigners) which has been voted on the 9th February 2014.
Their president Klaus Künzli will resign in the middle of 2015.

Charlotte Raemy, Giulia Robbiani, Ramona Sigg, Sally O’Brien, Sira Fäh, Maya Simon

gastrosuisse3

Sources:

inspired by the GastroSuisse presentation of 2013.
http://www.gastrosuisse.ch/de/gastrosuisse/?
http://www.moneycab.com/mcc/2013/09/26/gastrosuisse-praesident-klaus-kuenzli-tritt-vorzeitig-zurueck/

Switzerland Tourism

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Switzerland Tourism is an organisation that is responsible for the promotion of Switzerland as a touristic destination. Founded in 1917 it is governed by public law. Its role is to promote Switzerland for private as well as business travel. Switzerland Tourism promotes the country for incoming and outgoing tourists.
With their funny advertisements, Switzerland Tourism tries to share Switzerland’s traditions with tourists who are not aware of them.

Swiss tourism

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Authors: Laureline Magnin, Clio Tettoni, Héléna Galera, Jennifer Cabido, Justine Berclaz, Laura Risse

Attractiveness of Swiss Health Care and Medical Tourism

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Karl Arsiriy

Mini-case Study Attractiveness of Swiss Health Care and Medical Tourism

References:

Pavri, S. (2013, October 20). Switzerland top of the travel table. Retrieved on 17.12.2013 from http://gulfnews.com/gn-focus/switzerland/switzerland-top-of-the-travel-table-1.1244048

Nadeem Esmail (August 2013), Health care lessons from Switzerland. Lessons from Abroad: a series on Health Care Reform, 13-15. Retrieved on 19.12.2013 from http://www.fraserinstitute.org/

Lloyd-Williams, O. (2013, March 11). Switzerland has to reinvest itself to accommodate for China. Retrieved from Jing Daily: http://www.jingdaily.com/switzerland-has-had-to-reinvent-itself-to-accommodate-for-china/24505/

Schwab, K. The global competitiveness Report 2013-2014 by World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 17.12.2013 from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2013-14.pdf

Ski industry and climate change

Climate change is a challenge for the tourism industry in mountainous areas, mainly because of less snow coverage. Already now but more in the future, ski resorts will have more pressure and adapting to this issue will involve more costs.

This case study compares three peer-reviewed journals written on the issue of climate change in mountainous areas and adaptation measures in two different countries: Canada and Australia. Of course, the impact of climate change differs from country to country, or more precisely, from ski resort to ski resort.

A lot of ski resorts compensate the lack of snow by installing snow guns because snowmaking reduces the vulnerability of the ski industry. Of course, there are other adaptation measures for a ski resort to stay profitable.

Lack of snow Switzerland

To find out more on this topic: Mini case study on ski industry and climate change

Author: Magalie Baechler, Class 703e

Main sources:

Bürki, R., Elsasser, H., & Abegg, B. (2003, April). Climate change-impacts on the tourism industry in mountain areas. In 1st International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism, Dierba (pp. 9-11).

Pickering, C. M., & Buckley, R. C. (2010). Climate response by the ski industry: the shortcomings of snowmaking for Australian resorts. Ambio, 39(5-6), 430-438.

Scott, D., McBoyle, G., Mills, B., & Wall, G. (2001, December). Assessing the vulnerability of the alpine skiing industry in Lakelands Tourism Region of Ontario (Canada) to climate variability and change. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Climate, Tourism and Recreation. International Society of Biometeorology. Pgs (pp. 153-170).

Tourisme durable – Le Maya Boutique Hôtel

Le Maya Boutique Hôtel est situé sur les hauteurs de Sion, dans le village de Nax, à 1300m d’altitude.

Cet établissement, construit entièrement à base de matériaux naturels, propose un concept de bien-être naturel dans une atmosphère calme et pure. Il met en avant les valeurs de respect entre l’homme et la nature.

Cet établissement s’inscrit dans le tourisme durable, mais comment définir cette notion ?Selon l’UNWTO (organisation mondiale du tourisme), le tourisme durable optimise l’utilisation des ressources naturelles et contribue à leur conservation, tout en proposant un haut niveau de satisfaction au visiteur par des expériences innovantes en relation avec la nature, et dans le respect de l’authenticité du lieu.

maya_guest_house

Le Maya Boutique Hôtel s’inscrit dans le concept de tourisme durable au niveau de la construction du bâtiment : en effet, les murs porteurs sont constitués en botte de paille, élément naturel faisant office d’isolant.Les murs extérieurs sont recouverts de chaux, tandis que les murs intérieurs sont recouverts d’une peinture à base d’argile. La couverture est faite à l’aide de tavillons, et tout l’aménagement intérieur a été réalisé en bois.De plus, le bâtiment est autonome énergétiquement à 80% grâce à un four à bois, à des panneaux solaires, mais également à la conception du bâtiment qui permet d’utiliser au mieux l’énergie produite par le rayonnement solaire.

Mais l’établissement rejoint aussi le concept de tourisme durable dans les valeurs qu’il souhaite transmettre au visiteur. Ses propriétaires nous ont expliqué vouloir proposer un produit axé welness naturel, notamment à travers l’atmosphère présente dans les chambres favorisant un sommeil agréable. La restauration proposée est également composée uniquement de produits du terroir.Le rapport entre la nature et l’homme est au centre du concept, cependant, les gérants souhaitent rester dans la simplicité et dans l’authenticité.

Afin de vraiment comprendre le concept, nous avons visité le Maya Boutique Hôtel mi-novembre. Nous avons été accueillis très chaleureusement par ses propriétaires, Lisa et Louis Papadopoulos, qui nous ont fait visiter l’établissement et avec qui nous avons pu nous entretenir afin de mieux comprendre leur vision du tourisme durable dans la région.

Sans oublier les antipastis à tomber par terre, la pizza fait maison à volonté et le dessert à se relever la nuit !

PDF: maya_guesthouse_hes_701_d

Liens:

http://mayaguesthousefr.wordpress.com/

http://www.maya-boutique-hotel.ch

Émission canal 9: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TrE99enscT0

Passe-moi les jumelles TSR (14:10): http://www.rts.ch/emissions/passe-moi-les-jumelles/5262759-du-foin-dans-les-toiles.html#.Uk8sDsmlmEU.facebook

Articles:

http://mayaguesthousefr.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/24heures-17-07-2013.pdf

http://sdt.unwto.org/fr/content/definition

Sources :

United Nation World Tourism Organisation (2013). Sustainable Development of Tourism – Definition. Récupéré sur: http://sdt.unwto.org/fr/content/definition

Image: récupéré sur: http://mayaguesthouse.wordpress.com/

Auteurs: Adrien Repond, Laurent Wider, Etienne Galley, Félicien Rey-Bellet

Tourism related FDI in Switzerland: ST and LT consequences.

International Tourism Exchange TIA FDI report:

‘Is there Tourism related FDI in Switzerland and if so, what are both the sustainable tourism and leisure tourism consequences?’-

That is the question that puzzled our team, when we started inquiring on the Swiss-FDI topic.

images

What is FDI?

Stands for foreign direct investments and It’s an investment from a foreign company made in another company than its own. The difference between direct and indirect investments is that with direct investment the company has a significant degree of influence and control over the company in which they invested.

Influences on the FDI:

Some logical factors that influence the investment in a country are e.g. the political stability of country or the legal system. But one important factor is the exchange rate.

If there is a lot of foreign investment for example in Switzerland then the value of the Swiss Franc will go up. If this goes on for a long time then the Swiss Franc will become too high and this will discourage foreign companies to make investments in Switzerland.

To compensate this, the Swiss national bank is buying Euro’s on a large scale to keep the Swiss Franc at 1.2.

FDI in Switzerland

          Inward

Switzerland has always wanted to have an “open economy”, being an economical system that contained a lot of foreign actors so they really played a big role in the Swiss open economy. Thanks to the location in Europe and thanks to the stable political, legal and social system in the country, Switzerland was able to attract quite a lot of so-called inward Foreign Direct Investment. The crisis though has been a risky period for Switzerland. To make sure Switzerland remains an attractive country to invest in, they will always have to make the business environment better. If Switzerland stagnates, other countries will win the ever-lasting competition.

In 2008, Switzerland was the second country on the list of countries with the most inward FDI. On the first place were The Netherlands.

          Outward

As tradition, the outward FDI in Switzerland is relatively high. Switzerland is a small country and has not so many natural resources. Because of their position, being encircled by Europe, the companies of Switzerland like to do more activities abroad. The outward FDI reflects the amount of companies that give their business a go on foreign, global markets.

The financial crisis pushed everyone in a recession, including Switzerland, but still the Swiss outward FDI grew in 2008 and 2009. This is thanks to their economy, which is well balanced, thanks to innovation and knowledge, and a good governing structure.


Is there FDI in tourism?

Yes there is foreign investment. But it’s not the biggest sector where there is FDI in Switzerland. The sectors with the biggest FDI is parmaceutic sector, Bankin, insurance and finance, IT, Environment. Tourism is not in the list but can be associated with environmental technology and the real estate. So the FDI for tourism is hidden in the other sectors.

A form from FDI in tourism can be found in hotel chains. In the hotel chains also here in Switzerland is a lot of international money involved. E.g Accor, Best Western, Marriot, Movenpick…

But another form from FDI in tourism we found in the next table. Five of the ten largest greenfield projects have a target industry in tourism. The money invested in Swiss tourism was mostly used for the construction of hotels.

 

Consequences from FDI:

-Create jobs

Swiss Labor Law is applied by default for any business operating in Switzerland (except for some organizations, which benefit from a special status, like permanent missions). A company willing to hire foreign employers has no direct technical barriers to import labor, but through special mechanisms Swiss Labor System (“third” countries notion) favorites Swiss employees, indirectly working against the leakage.

-support the economy

FDI influences the country’s economic attractiveness, through exhibiting successful ROI to the world and either attracting even more investors, or ruining country’s reputation. It also indirectly strengthens the national currency, thus may be encouraged by countries willing to do so. In Swiss case, however, this aspect of the FDI (especially related to Tourism Industry), this is considered a negative influence, due to existing exchange rate stabilizing policy.

-leakage and linkage due to dividend outflow

FDI is often considered beneficial, on the earliest stages of a business set-up or renovation (creation of jobs, money inflow, etc.) However, once a company starts making considerable profit, despite the fact, that some of taxes may be retained by the host country, there’s still a considerable outflow not only through such phenomenon as outsourced employees, but also due to the dividends owed to foreign shareholders, or other forms of ROI.

-share knowledge

There’s an exchange between the FDI-actor and company invested, which may be mutually beneficial or undesired by one party, due to the unwillingness to allow secret or technique leakages.

TIA Team: Laura Jacobs, Heidi Dillen, Karl Arsiriy

Sources:

•Endo, K. (2006, August). Foreign direct investment in tourism—flows and volumes. Retrieved from Science direct: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026151770500021X

•European commision. (2012). Top ten countries as extra EU-27 partners for FDI positions, EU-27, end 2009-2011. Retrieved from Eurostat: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php?title=File:Top_ten_countries_as_extra_EU-27_partners_for_FDI_positions,_EU-27,_end_2009-2011_%28EUR_1_000_million%29.png&filetimestamp=20130722084750

•HAMIDA, L. B. (2007). Inward Foreign Direct Investment and Intra-Industry Spillovers: The Swiss Case. Fribourg: Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences.

•Integrated foreign economic information portal. (n.d.). Retrieved from ved.gov: http://www.ved.gov.ru/eng/

•Kothe, A. B. (2013). FDI in figures. UNCTAD.

•LLoyd-Williams, O. (2013, March 11). Switzerland has to reinvest itself to accommodate for China. Retrieved from Jing Daily: http://www.jingdaily.com/switzerland-has-had-to-reinvent-itself-to-accommodate-for-china/24505/

•Monthly Statistical Bulletin October 2013. (2013). Retrieved from Banc swiss national: http://www.snb.ch/en/iabout/stat/statpub/statmon/stats/statmon

What is bleisure?

Bleisure is the combination of business and leisure so it is like when business travelers extend their stay at their destination for leisure purposes. It is a growing trend in the travel industry, as the blurring of personal and professional lives of travelers increases on a global level.

There are already a lot of companies who took advantage of this new concept, like Marriott and CitizenM. There are different drivers that encouraged this new type of travel, like LCC, loyalty programs. This could also extend to such areas as cruising.

Bleisure has advantages for both the employers and the employees and will contribute to the increase in the incensitive travel and will probably impact travel law.

Bleisure

Our Powerpoint presentation: Bleisure complete

Written by: Karl Arisriy and Magalie Baechler, class 703e

Keywords: bleisure, bizcation, travel, travel law, cruiseship, business, leisure, citizenM, Commonwealth, Switzerland, Hospitality

Sources

Bennett, A. (2009). Best Hotel Loyalty Programs. Retrieved from http://www.travelandleisure.com/articles/best-hotel-loyalty-programs

Design Hotel AG. Best of bleisure. Retrieved from http://www.designhotels.com/specials/top_picks_by_topic/best_of_bleisure?affiliate=&workmatrix_user=4eacfa31a9

Gonzalo, F. (2012).  Vacation time goes unused by most Americans. Retrieved from http://fredericgonzalo.com/en/2012/10/25/vacation-time-goes-unused-by-most-americans-infographic/

Gonzalo, F. (2013) The growing trend of bleisure travel. Retrieved from http://ehotelier.com/hospitality-news/item.php?id=26432_0_11_0_C&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ehotelier+%28eHotelier+Global+Hospitality+News%29

Global mountain tourism current and future conditions

bild incoming

Mountains are important assets for the tourism industry. They take up an estimated share of 15-20% of the global tourism market, generating between 100 and 140 billion US$ per year. The winter tourism is more developed but will decrease in the future. There will be less snow because of the global warming. The summer activities like hiking, climbing and mountain biking need to get more advertised. The mountain industry has to minimize the seasonal effect and diversify the supplies.

Authors: Maya Simon, Stefano Maioglio, Jonathan Evequoz, Andreea El Fakih, Martina Wiederkehr

sources:

Links: http://www.mtnforum.org/search/site/mountain%20tourism

http://www.whistler.com/stats/

Mountain Tourism powerpoint